Name of HOD: Prof Dr. Muhammad Zahid Qamar


To provide quality education in the field of pharmacology & therapeutic at par with international standards.


The mission of pharmacology department is contribute towards that is to prepare the competent inspiring and empathetic health professionals and researchers who can contribute cost-effective health care to community and are ready to adapt the changes along with effective collaboration with in interdisciplinary teams.


Undergraduate teaching program in Pharmacology & Therapeutics is providing students with knowledge of scientific basis of its application using interactive teaching strategies. In a systematic manner our department wants to facilitate students to understand subject with clinical significance involving the study of dynamics, kinetics, therapeutics, adverse effect, contraindications and possible drug interactions, experimental pharmacology and pharmacy.


The Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics is providing holistic, integrated medical education to MBBS, BDS and allied health students. As a pre- clinical science unit of Kishwar Fazal teaching hospital, it makes an integral link between Basic Medical & Clinical Sciences. The outcomes of the department are

  • To provides 3rd year MBBS & BDS students solid understanding of basic Pharmacology & Therapeutics
  • To strengthen medical education in relation to pharmacology for health professionals including faculty members, students of MBBS, BDS, and Allied health professionals for effective, safe and ethical use of medicine in the community.
  • To prepare MBBS students and students of allied health sciences like DPT with up-to-date knowledge of the subject.
  • To prepare students for life time learning and problem solving skills through clinical presentation, assignments and small group discussions.
  • To provide research facility in basic and clinical pharmacology


  1. HOD’s office
  2. Professor’s office
  3. Assistant professor’s office
  4. Demonstrator’s office
  5. Pharmacology laboratory
  6. Pharmacology museum
  7. Small group discussion rooms


The details of the syllabus are as under:


  1. General Pharmacology:
  • Definition of Pharmacology, Objectives of learning Pharmacology, definition of drug and drug nomenclature.
  • Standard sources of drug information, pharmacopoeias, and formularies.
  • Branches/Divisions of Pharmacology.
  • Sources of drugs.
  • Active principles of drugs and Pharmacopoeias.
  • Dosage forms and doses of drugs.
  • Drug administration.
  • Absorption of drugs and processes involved in drug absorption ( transport of drugs across cell-membrane)
  • Factors modifying absorption of drugs.
  • Bioavailability, its clinical significance and factors affecting bioavailability.
  • Drugs reservoirs, distribution and redistribution of drugs, plasma protein binding.
  • Pro-drug, Biotransformation of drugs, enzyme induction, enzyme inhibition and entero-hepatic circulation.
  • Plasma half-life of drugs, steady state concentration, its clinical importance and factors affecting it.
  • Excretion of drugs.
  • Mechanism of drug action.
  • Dose response curves, structure-activity relationship.
  • Factors modifying action and doses of drugs.
  • Drug-drug interactions.
  1. Locally Acting Drugs
  • Demulcents, Emollients, Irritants, Counter irritants, Astringents, anti-seborrhoeics, Locally acting enzymes.
  • Antiseptics and Disinfectants
  • Ectoparasiticides
  1. Drugs Acting on Gastrointestinal Tract
  • Anti Emetics
  • Drugs affecting motility of GIT
  • Ulcer Healing drugs
  • Purgatives/Laxatives
  1. Cardiovascular Drugs
  • Anti-arrhythmic Drugs
  • Inotropic Drugs/Drugs used in cardiac failure.
  • Anti-hypertensive Drugs
  • Anti-anginal Drugs
  • Thrombolytics/Anti-coagulants/Anti-platelets
  • Anti-hyperlipidemic Drugs
  1. Diuretics
  2. Autocoids
  3. Drugs Acting on Autonomic Nervous System

Cholinergic Drugs

  • Choline Esters.
  • Anticholine-esterases,.
  • Cholinomimetic Alkaloids

Anti-cholinergic Drugs

  • Anti-Muscarinic
  • Anti-Nicotinic

Sympathomimetics/Adrenergic Drugs

  • Catecholamine
  • Non-Catecholamine


  • Alpha Adrenergic receptor Blockers.
  • Beta Adrenergic receptor Blockers

Adrenergic Neurone Blockers

Autonomic Ganglionic Blockers

Skeletal Muscle Relaxants

  1. a) Neuromuscular Blocking Agents.
  2. b) Central Muscle Relaxants.
  3. c) Directly acting skeletal muscle and relaxants.
  4. Central Nervous System 3
  5. Sedative-Hypnotics
  6. Antiepileptics
  7. General Anaesthetics
  8. Local Anaesthetics
  9. Drugs for Movement Disorders/ Anti Parkinsonism Drugs
  10. Alcohol
  11. Drugs for Migraine
  12. Psychopharmacology
  • Anti-psychotics
  • Anxiolytics
  • Anti-Depressants/Anti-mania
  1. Analgesics
  2. a) Opioids
  3. b) Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflamatory Drugs (NSAID)
  4. c) Anti-gout Drugs
  5. d) DMARDs
  6. Drugs Acting on Respiratory System
  7. Drugs used in treatment of Bronchial Asthma
  8. Expectorants
  9. Mucolytics
  10. Anti-tussives
  11. Drugs Acting on Endocrine System:
  12. Pituitary-Hypothalamic Drugs
  13. Adrenocorticoids
  14. Sex Hormones/Hormonal contraception
  15. Thyroid/ Parathyroid Drugs
  16. Pancreatic Hormones and Oral Antidiabetic Agents
  17. Drugs used in infertility

Drugs Acting on Uterus

Ergometrine, Terbutaline, Dinoprostone, Carboprost, Ritodrine, Oxytocin.

  1. Antimicrobial Drugs
  2. a) Sulfonamides
  3. b) Penicillins
  4. c) Cephalosporins
  5. d) Aminoglycosides
  6. e) Tetracyclines
  7. f) Macrolides
  8. g) Quinolones
  9. h) Anti-tuberculous drugs
  10. i) Antileprotic drugs
  11. j) Anti-fungal drugs
  12. k) Anti-viral drugs
  13. l) Anti-protozoal drugs
  • Anti-malarial drugs
  • Anti-amoebic drugs
  1. m) Urinary tract anti-septics
  2. n) Anti cancer drugs
  3. o) Immunosuppressive agents
  4. p) Miscellaneous
  5. q) Antihelmintics



Experiments on the actions of selected drugs to be demonstrated to students on suitable animal/tissue models.

  1. To study effects of drugs on rabbit’s eye
  2. To study effects of increasing dose of acetylcholine on isolated rabbit’s ileum.
  3. To study the effect of acetylcholine and atropine on isolated rabbit ileum
  4. To study effects of drugs on frog’s heart.
  5. To study the effect of neuromuscular blocking agent on frog rectus abdominal muscle
  6. To study introduction to biostatistics
  8. Introduction to pharmacy equipment & their simpler implications
  9. Weights & measures/metrology, house-hold measure, temperature measuring system & their inter-conversions
  10. Introduction to various types of pharmacy/dosage forms and commonly used abbreviations in prescriptions
  11. To study pharmacognosy, crude drugs, active principals
  12. To prepare sulfur ointment
  13. To prepare KMNO4 lotion
  14. To prepare APC powders
  15. To prepare 5% glucose in normal saline and ORS
  16. To prepare carminative mixtures

General principles

  • Guideline for rationale use of drugs
  • Prescription writing for common ailments:
  • Drug concept
  • Acute watery diarrhea
  • Bacillary dysentery
  • Amoebic dysentery
  • Ascariasis
  • Tape-worm infestation
  • Acute streptococcal pharyngitis
  • Iron deficiency anaemia
  • Allergic rhinitis
  • Scabies
  • Acute malarial fever
  • Cerebral malaria
  • Typhoid fever
  • Bronchial asthma
  • Hypertension
  • Migraine
  • Cardiac failure
  • Shock
  1. Clinicopharmacological Seminars on Rational Drug Therapy and Drug Interaction

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